Joint Publications

Co-influence of fermentation time and temperature on physicochemical properties, bioactive components and microstructure of ting (a Southern African food) from whole grain sorghum

Published 20 August 2018, by Oluwafemi Ayodeji Adebo, Patrick Berka Njobeh, anet Adeyinka Adebiyi and Eugenie Kayitesi



Fermentation parameters fortingproduction from whole grain sorghum were optimized and the pH, titratableacidity, total viable bacteria count, total lactic acid bacteria count, total fungal and yeast count, tannin content,total phenolic content, totalflavonoid content and antioxidant activities were studied. Milled whole grain sor-ghum was mixed with an equal volume of water and spontaneously fermented to obtaintingsamples. Values ofall the parameters studied showed significant (p≤0.05) changes with increased fermentation time and tem-perature. Using numerical multi-response optimization, optimal fermentation conditions of whole graintingwere estimated at 28 °C for 72 h and at these conditions, reduced pH (5.9), high titratable acidity (1.1 g/kg),good microbial growth accompanied with relatively high values of total phenolic content (46.1 mg GAE/g), totalflavonoid content (40.9 mg CE/g) tannin content (14.1 mg CE/g) and antioxidant activity (3.7 μM TE/g) wereobtained. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification of phenolic compounds showed thatthe optimaltingsamples (fermented at 28 °C for 72 h) had comparable levels of catechin (12.4 μg/g), gallic acid(0.75 μg/g) and quercetin (0.61 μg/g) concentrations, to othertingsamples. Scanning electron microscopy oftingsamples showed no changes with fermentation. This study would help improve whole graintingprocessing,which might increase the consumption of this potentially health promoting food.

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