Book Chapters

Keep talking: crosstalk between iron and sulfur networks fine-tunes growth and development to promote survival under iron limitation

Plants are capable of synthesizing all the molecules necessary to complete their life cycle from minerals, water, and light. This plasticity, however, comes at a high energetic cost and therefore plants need to regulate their economy and allocate resources accordingly. Iron–sulfur (Fe–S) clusters are at the center of photosynthesis, respiration, amino acid, and DNA metabolism. Fe–S clusters are extraordinary catalysts, but their main components (Fe2+ and S2−) are highly reactive and potentially toxic. To prevent toxicity, plants have evolved mechanisms to regulate the uptake, storage, and assimilation of Fe and S. Recent advances have been made in understanding the cellular economy of Fe and S metabolism individually, and growing evidence suggests that there is dynamic crosstalk between Fe and S networks. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent literature on Fe sensing, allocation, use efficiency, and, when pertinent, its relationship to S metabolism. Our future perspectives include a discussion about the open questions and challenges ahead and how the plant nutrition field can come together to approach these questions in a cohesive and more efficient way.


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