Despite important strides in the fight against poverty in the past two decades, child poverty remains widespread and persistent, particularly in Africa. Poverty in all its dimensions is detrimental for early childhood development and often results in unreversed damage to the lives of girls and boys, locking children and families into intergenerational poverty. This edited volume contributes to the policy initiatives aiming to reduce child poverty and academic understanding of child poverty and its solutions by bringing together applied research from across the continent. With the Sustainable Development Goals having opened up an important space for the fight against child poverty, not least by broadening its conceptualization to be multidimensional, this collection aims to push the frontiers by challenging existing narratives around child poverty, exploring alternative understandings of the complexities and dynamics underpinning child poverty, and, crucially, examining policy options that work to address this critical challenge.

To many African people, the
groundnut (Arachishypogaea L.) is
the most important legume providing
them with much needed dietary
nutrients and income. Groundnuts,
also known as peanuts, are consumed
in a variety of snacks and are a major
ingredient in ready-to-use therapeutic
food (RUTF), one of the most effective
home-based nutritional therapies
for children and HIV/AIDS patients,
particularly in the developing world
(Magamba et al., 2017)

This study considers expanding beyond the current collective understanding of research on the impact of global food and agriculture laws on Africa’s food security. This paper aims to answer two basic questions: are the current global food and agriculture laws capable of facilitating and supporting the goal of ending hunger in Africa and increasing food security; will the existing global food law promote fair and equitable food production and supply practices to benefit all who need it? This paper will answer the questions by using a qualitative approach to Africa’s experience in dealing with the existing global food and agriculture laws. This will provide insight into understanding the law, the behaviour of society and the outcome of the application of the law in real life. This will enable us to identify the gap in the global food law addressing food security. The qualitative data in the study will help the in-depth explanation, exploration and understanding of the root cause of food insecurity.

Projections of a burgeoning population coupled with global environmental change offer an increasingly dire picture of the state of the world’s food security in the not-too-distant future. But how can we transform the current food system to become more sustainable, more equitable and more just? We identify kitchens as sites of transformative innovation in the food system where cooks and chefs can leverage traditional food knowledge about local food species to create delicious and nutritious dishes. Achieving a sustainable food system is a grand challenge, one where cooks in particular are stepping forward as innovators to find solutions.

Realising the right to food in South Africa requires more than an increase in food production. Increasing access to food is equally important, so this contribution adopts a ‘food systems approach’. It argues that food security is not just a national and/or provincial government concern but that the Constitution demands of municipalities to contribute to realising the right to food. Against the backdrop of a general introduction into the division of responsibilities between national, provincial and local government, it deploys two arguments to make this assertion. The first is located in the jurisprudence of the South African Constitutional Court on socio-economic rights. The second is located in the division of powers between national, provincial and local government. This contribution explores various linkages between a municipality’s constitutional powers and food security. Specific emphasis is placed on the municipality’s responsibility to regulate trade and markets as well as its responsibility to conduct spatial planning and land use management.

Sorghum and Millets: Chemistry, Technology and Nutritional Attributes, Second Edition, is a new, fully revised edition of this widely read book published by AACC International. With an
internationally recognized editorial team, this new edition covers, in detail, the history, breeding, production, grain chemistry, nutritional quality and handling of sorghum and
millets. Chapters focus on biotechnology, grain structure and chemistry, nutritional properties, traditional and modern usage in foods and beverages, and industrial and non

New forms of knowledge production that actively engage in different types of knowledge in participatory settings have emerged in the last two decades as ‘the right thing to do’. However, the role scientists play in facilitating these processes remains unclear. This article contributes to calls for more deliberate and critical engagement between scholarship and practice of the co-production of knowledge by constructing and testing a conceptual framework based on the literature outlining specific task for scientists in co-production processes. This framework is used to analyze the co-production of knowledge for local food security policy in South Africa, based on documentary analysis and in-depth interviews with scientists, policy makers and stakeholders. It shows that the tasks set out in the conceptual framework provide a useful lens for unpacking, and so better understanding, the role played by scientists in knowledge co-production. Applying the framework also helps to uncover insights into proximate outcomes of co-production, such as increased capacity and power redistribution, as well as critical contextual factors, such as the type of policy problem and the prevailing governance framing. The article concludes that more nuanced and critical understanding of the role of scientists in the co-production process will help over-come the apparent paradox that, although co-production is a ‘buzz word’, researchers often they still adhere to objective and linear knowledge production.

Poor environmental technologies and gastrointestinal illnesses have been hypothesized to be a primary cause to the lack of impact of child health programs on child stunting rates (low height-for-age) in South Africa. This study assessed correlations between environmental exposures (water source, water treatment, sanitation, refuse), diarrheal occurrences, and systemic inflammation proxies among female and male children under five years of age in the Eastern Cape. A conceptual model was hypothesized using structural equation (SE) modeling and two sex-specific (female and male) datasets were subsequently generated from the data and applied to the hypothesized SE model. Results suggested that environmental exposure variables associated with diarrhea and systemic inflammation proxies were different between females and males. For diarrheal occurrences among females, an increase in local authority management of refuse (compared to household management) (0.161, p-value (p) = 0.007), sharing sanitation facilities (0.060, p = 0.023), and a decrease in the frequency of the treatment of drinking water (−0.043, p = 0.025) were correlated with an increase in diarrhea. For males, an increase in household use of flush toilets (as compared to ventilated pit latrines) was correlated with an increase in diarrhea (0.113, p = 0.027). For systemic inflammation among both sexes, an increase in household use of water pumped into the premises (as compared to a public water tap) and an increase in diarrheal occurrences were correlated with an increase in systemic inflammation. The data support an increased focus on sex and gender specific factors among field practitioners and policy makers working in the environmental health field in South Africa.

In Africa, food systems intersect with dynamics such as demographic growth, urbanisation, and climate change, as African food systems are key drivers of livelihood provision, development, and human-environment interactions. The governance of African food systems shapes how food systems are changing as a response to these dynamics, which will have important social, economic, and ecological impacts for generations of Africans. This article positions large land investments in food system changes in central Kenya and northern Mozambique based on a large-scale household survey and interviews, and uses these findings to debate the concept of food democracy. Large land investments contributed to more modern food systems, which impacted land availability, household’s engagement in agriculture, and supply chains. These changes shifted power and control in local food systems. But even in the ‘extreme’ example of land investments, local perspectives challenge what could, and could not, be included in a democratic food system.

Abstract  If food democracy is about who gets to determine the food that we eat and the character of the underlying food system, then we must examine not only who gets to make decisions that impact on food but also on what evidence, or knowledge, these decisions are made. This article argues that widening the democratic scope of knowledge on which our decisions on food are based is an essential component of food democracy. Food democracies do not just call for citizens to be knowledgeable about the food system but for all stakeholders to actively contribute to the holistic understanding of the food system. Four dimensions of knowledge democracy are set out: The co-production of knowledge with stakeholders; harnessing non-cognitive knowledge represented in arts and culture; knowledge as a tool for action; and the open access and sharing of knowledge. This framework is then used to explore how knowledge is currently already produced and used in a way that enhances food democracy, including through Participatory Action Research with peasant farmers, using the arts to create a ‘contemplative commons’ about food and the unique dialogue process through which the social movement La Vía Campesina operates. Based on these, and other, examples the article concludes that universities, and other recognized centres of knowledge production, need to focus not only on creating new knowledge partnerships but also on finding spaces to challenge and shift accepted ways of knowing in order to better promote food democracy.

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